Richard N. Landers, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor in Industrial/Organizational Psychology
Primary Investigator of TNTLab
Old Dominion University

rnlanders@odu.edu

The Work-related Social Media Questionnaire (WSMQ)

 

The WSMQ can be used to assess the degree to which employees are using social media in the workplace for reasons they believe to be beneficial to their work performance in the WSMQ(+) and for reasons they believe to be harmful to their work performance in the WSMQ(-).

For details on the creation of these scales, see:
Landers, R. N. & Callan, R. C. (in press). Validation of the beneficial and harmful work-related social media behavioral taxonomies: Development of the Work-related Social Media Questionnaire (WSMQ). Social Science Computer Review.

Two studies were conducted with the complete WSMQ below, both described in the paper referenced above. The coefficient alpha reliabilities from those two studies are presented below and should give you an idea for the internal consistency reliability you might achieve with the scales used in similar samples.

 

Five scales are presented here:

 

WSMQ(+), Long Form

Information Gathering (α = .91, .86)

  1. I've found tutorials and lessons on social media to help me learn how to perform my job better.
  2. I have used social media to learn how to perform better at my job.

Communicating with Existing Customer/Client (α = .95, .96)

  1. I communicate with existing customers or clients via social media.
  2. I maintain contact with existing customers or clients using social media.

New Customer/Client Outreach (α = .89, .87)

  1.  I reach out to potential new customers and clients using social media.
  2.  I've identified potential customers and clients by searching social media.

Crowdsourcing (α = .92, .92)

  1. I request help from people on social media when I am having trouble solving a problem at work.
  2. When I can't solve a problem at work, I ask for help on social media.

Intra-office Communication (α = .81, .84)

  1. I use social media to contact my coworkers when I am unable to reach them by other means.
  2. Through social media, I maintain contact with other people in my organization.

Participation in Online Work Community (α = .89, .86)

  1. I post on my organization's social media site or group page.
  2. I use my organization's official social media presence to network.

Organizational Reputation Management (α = .74, .82)

  1. I have found pictures, videos, or other content on social media of a coworker that may harm his or her reputation and warned him or her about them.
  2. I have told my coworker about slander others have posted on social media about him or her.
  3. When someone posts something negative about our organization or its employees on social media, I try to do something about it.
  4. If I find something on social media that will harm the reputation of my coworkers or our organization, I let people know.

Social Media as Technical Solution (α = .91, .83)

  1. I have taken advantage of the technical features of social media (like file sharing or scheduling functions) to accomplish work tasks.
  2. I have used software features of social media to accomplish a work task faster or more easily.

 

WSMQ(+), Short Form

α = .82, .83

  1. I have used social media to learn how to perform better at my job.
  2. I communicate with existing customers or clients via social media.
  3. I reach out to potential new customers and clients using social media.
  4. I request help from people on social media when I am having trouble solving a problem at work.
  5. I use social media to contact my coworkers when I am unable to reach them by other means.
  6. I use my organization's official social media presence to network.
  7. If I find something on social media that will harm the reputation of my coworkers or our organization, I let people know.
  8. I have taken advantage of the technical features of social media (like file sharing or scheduling functions) to accomplish work tasks.

 

WSMQ(-), Long Form

Creating Offensive Content (α = .84, .84)

  1. I have shared my personal opinions on social media that others in my workplace found inappropriate or offensive.
  2. Other people at work have been offended by something I posted on social media.

Time Theft (α = .94, .91)

  1. I've spent time on social media while at work when I should not have.
  2. I've used social media when I should have been working.

Disparaging Others (α = .90, .87)

  1. I have posted negative opinions about my coworkers or customers on social media.
  2. I have discussed negative feelings towards clients, customers, or coworkers on social media.

Multitasking (α = .79, .87)

  1. When I want to use social media, I don't take a break from working - I just do both.
  2. I access social media while I am doing other work.

Representing Organization Poorly (α = .86, .91)

  1. I have done poor quality work using my organization's social media accounts.
  2. When doing work for my organization on social media, I have done a poor job.

Diminishing Personal Reputation (α = .91, .87)

  1. My friends have posted photos, videos, or content about me on social media that harmed my professional reputation.
  2. Clients or customers have posted information about me on social media that harmed my reputation at work.

Establishing Inappropriate Relationship (α = .81, .90)

  1. I have invited a personal relationship with a client or coworker that I shouldn't have.
  2. I've become close to someone I shouldn't have at work because of social media.

Plagiarism (α = .92, .93)

  1. I've stolen information or other content from social media and used it as if it was my own work.
  2. I've submitted work that wasn't my own because it came from social media.

Relationship Refusal (α = .92, .83)

  1. I've created an uncomfortable situation by refusing connections with coworkers, supervisors, or customers via social media.
  2. It has felt awkward at work after I refused a connection on social media with someone at work.

 

WSMQ(-), Short Form

α = .76, .78

  1. Other people at work have been offended by something I posted on social media.
  2. I've used social media when I should have been working.
  3. I have discussed negative feelings towards clients, customers, or coworkers on social media.
  4. I access social media while I am doing other work.
  5. I have done poor quality work using my organization's social media accounts.
  6. Clients or customers have posted information about me on social media that harmed my reputation at work.
  7. I have invited a personal relationship with a client or coworker that I shouldn't have.
  8. I've stolen information or other content from social media and used it as if it was my own work.
  9. I've created an uncomfortable situation by refusing connections with coworkers, supervisors, or customers via social media.

 

WSMQ Relaxation and Leisure Behavior Scale

α = .91, .80

  1. When I don't have other pressing tasks at work, I use social media to relax.
  2. I use social media in my free time at work.